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ENERGY SOLUTION WITH A HUMAN FACE: AFRICA AND THE REST OF THE WORLD (ISES " UNSOLVABLE PROBLEMS")

 

Introduction

 

We can categorize Africa’s energy sector into three distinct regions. North Africa, which is heavily relying on oil and gas, South Africa, depends on coal while the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa largely relies on biomass.

Expert analysis revealed that in 2009, an estimated 585 million people had no access to electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Unlike many other regions of the world, under current assumptions, that figure is expected to rise significantly by 2030 to about 652 million.

Title: Political Challenges - Getting African leaders to make energy a key priority in their political agenda

Description of Problem

Political instability and corruption hold sway in most African countries, coupled with power hungry leaders who want to perpetuate themselves in office.

Current Situation

Africa has been bedevilled with selfish leaders and unstable political terrain for a very long time, and some of these leaders have no clear goals and precise priority for energy industry.

Potential Solution

African Union (AU) should come out with a clear policy statement on prioritization for the energy sector, emphasizing the negative effect of green house gases arising from the use of the conventional energy sources. It must also be able to regulate the duration/ term in office of its political leaders (if possible).

Title: Energy Policy – Creating a clear and precise energy policy for Africa

Description of Problem

According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) reference scenario, Africa’s final electricity consumption is expected to double between 2007 and 2030 from 505 to 1012 TWh (IEA 2009). Over the same time period, the United Nations (UN) Secretary‐General’s Advisory Group on Energy and Climate Change (AGECC) has proposed that the UN System and Member States commit to ensuring universal access to reliable, affordable and sustainable modern energy services by 2030 (AGECC 2010). To meet this goal, massive electricity infrastructural development will be required in the short‐ and medium‐term, and this will be aided by energy policy implementation across the continent of Africa.

Current Situation

There is no clear energy policy in most African countries, what we have in most cases is just a framework which is not being implemented by the policy makers. Africa needs a clear energy policy; for instance; there should be a minimum requirement/ standard in terms of energy equipments or devices being imported into the countries, as at now nothing like that exists in most African countries.

Potential Solution

A clear policy must be in place to give directions and clarifications on how to exploit the untapped energy resources.

Title: Development of Human Potential and Resources - Maximizing the use of her enormous human potential and preventing brain drain from the continent

Problem Description

Sub-Saharan Africa has abundant human and solar potential and biomass is used extensively for household use, with prospects for increased commercial exploitation and electricity production. There are opportunities blended with adversity, human capacity is needed to fully harness these resources but the irony of the entire current energy situation in Africa is that we are suffering in the midst of plenty.

Current Situation

There is massive brain drain in the continent due to job insecurity and political instability, and this is especially so in the case of energy sector.

Potential Solution

Attractive investment in energy sector must be put in place to encourage skilled personnel to either stay or return to the continent. There should be training and education targeted towards empowering youths and young adults who are interested in energy sector.

Title: With increasing population across the continent, attaining sufficient energy supply to meet the demand the energy needs of Africans (affordably) within the next 20 years

Problem Description

World Bank reports stressed that; the energy sector in Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by significant challenges such as: low energy access rates, electricity costs as high as USD 0.50/kWh, insufficient generation capacity to meet rapidly rising demand, and poor reliability of supply. The estimated economic value of power outages in Africa amounts to as much as 2% of GDP, and 6-16% in lost turnover for enterprises.

Current Situation

Population is rapidly increasing, more people need energy but the cost implication is currently economically not within their reach.

Potential Solution

There is need for venture capitalist investment in most African countries in the energy sector; the investment might be in the form of skills/knowledge transfers or actual investment. These investors can form strategic partnership with public or private sector or even with NGOs as the case may be.

Title: Renewable Energy Quota - Mobilizing Africa's resources for research and development to fully discover and exploit the enormous potential in renewable energy sources across the continent

Problem Description

The World Energy Council (WEC) reports of 2005 revealed that Africa’s energy resources are characterized by oil and gas reserves in North and West Africa, hydroelectric potential in Central and Eastern Africa, and coal in Southern Africa. Hydropower in Sub-Saharan Africa has an enormous exploitable potential, which according to African Development Bank (AfDB) currently accounts for 45% of sub-Saharan Africa’s current electricity power generation which represents only a fraction of the commercially exploitable potential.

Current Situation

There are massive opportunities for commercially exploitable renewable energy sources but currently little or nothing is known about the quota that is needed by the continent for a sustainable energy sector.

Potential Solution

A proactive result oriented research is needed to fully harness and maximize renewable energy resources in the continent.

By. Steve Arowolo: ISES 2011 (Student Assembly Member, Representing Africa)

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Information Package

Click here to download the 2011 Information Package.

The Publication

How do students see the future of energy? Read the ISES 2009 Publication.

Student Energy

ISES is a Student Energy initiative.
Learn more about the movement.

ISES Updates

Click here to receive ISES updates.